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  • M. Atalla, E. Tannenbaum, E. J. Scheibner, "Stabilization of Si Surfaces by Thermally Grown Oxides," Bell System Tech. J., 38, 749 (May 1959). (Same as Bell Telephone Monograph 3254, see especially pp. 15 and 16.)
  • E. Deal and A. S. Grove, "General Relationship for the Thermal Oxidation of Silicon," J.A.P., 36, 37770 (December 1965).
  • J. Frosch and L. Derick, "Surface Protection and Selective Masking During Diffusion in Si," J. Electrochem. Soc., l04, 547 (1957).
  • Burger and Donovan, Fundamentals of Silicon Integrated Device Technology, Vol. 1, pp. 93- 98.
  • Ghandhi, The Theory and Practice of Microelectronics, Ch. 6.
  • Glaser/Subak-Sharpe, Integrated Circuit Engineering, Section 5.6.
  • Anner, Planar Processing Primer, Ch 5.

Four Point Probe

  • Anner, Planar Processing Primer, Sections 3.4 - 3.11.
  • Gibbons, "Ion Implantation in Semiconductors - Part I, Range Distribution Theory and Experiments," Proc. IEEE 56, (1968), p. 295.
  • Ghandhi, Chapters 4 and 5.
  • Bond and F. M. Smits, "Interference Microscope for Measurement of Extremely Thin Surface Layers," BSTJ, 35, 1209 (Sept. 1956). (Same as BT Monograph 3682.)

Metal-Semiconductor Systems

  • Biondi, Transistor Technology, 3, 1958, Chapter 7.
  • Warner and Fordemwalt, eds., Integrated Circuits, Design Principles and Fabrication, 1965, pp. 307-309.

P-N Junction Capacitance

  • SEEC, Vol. 2, Section 5.4, pp. 93-96.

Vacuum Technology

  • Van Atta, Vacuum Science and Engineering, McGraw-Hill.
  • Brunner and Batzer, Practical Vacuum Technique, Reinhold.
  • Guthrie, Vacuum Technology, Wiley.


  • Smits, "Formation of Junction Structures by Solid State Diffusion," Proc. IRE, 43, 1049 (1958). (Same as BT Monograph 3136.)


  • D'Asaro, "Diffusion and Oxide Masking in Si by the Box Method," S.S.E., 1, 3 (1960). (Same as BT Monograph 3704.)
  • Goldsmith, Olmstead, and Scott, Jr., “Boron Nitride as a Diffusion Source for Silicon," RCA Review, 28, 2, pp. 444-350 (June, 1967).
  • Anner, Planar Processing Primer, Chapters 6 and 7.

Graphs and Tables

GT1 · N vs ρ

GT2 · 4PP Correction a

GT3 · 4PP Correction k

GT4 · Dry Oxidation

GT5 · Wet Oxidation

GT6 · Steam Oxidation

GT7 · Oxide Color Chart

GT8 · SiO2 Equations

GT9 · Trumbore Curves

GT10 · Si Diffusivity Data

GT11 · Goldsmith Curves

GT13 · erfc Table

GT14 · erf Properties

GT15 · Ion Implant Ranges

GT16 · BV for Diffused Junctions

GT19 · Physical Constants

GT20 · Vapor Pressure Curves

GT21 · Herman Mask Set



Data sheets

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